CANDIDAL BALANITIS. DEFINITION. Balanitis refers to inflammation of the glans . The most common cause of balanitis is Candida albicans. In common usage, “balanitis” and “balanoposthitis” are interchangeable, although balanoposthitis occurs only in uncircumcised males. For the. Zoon balanitis (ZB) is one of the benign nonvenereal dermatoses, which presents as a solitary, persistent erythematous plaque usually on the glans penis.

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Nikolowski W, Wiehl R. Complete resolution of Zoon balanitis with photodynamic therapy — A new therapeutic option? Reflectance confocal microscopy [ 25 ]. Thus, patients of ZB must be carefully followed for persistence or worsening of lesions and repeated biopsies should be done to rule out the underlying malignancy. YAG laser – Few studies have reported Er: Zoon’s balanitis successfully treated with photodynamic therapy: Erythroplasia of the female genitalia.

In contrast to this, the adjacent normal skin shows a typical honeycomb pattern and round papillary vessels. The treatment modalities have also been reviewed in details, and the importance of circumcision as the treatment of choice has been emphasized.

There is a scarcity of published data regarding the incidence and prevalence of ZB. First, CO 2 laser was used by Baldwin et al.


Report of two cases of a benign from plasmacytosis pudendi Arch Dermatol. Follow-up The exact follow-up regime for ZB after treatment is still unclear. For erythroplasia of Queyrat, a minimum of 5 years follow-up is recommended.

Hepatitis Ascending cholangitis Cholecystitis Pancreatitis Peritonitis.

Zoon balanitis: A comprehensive review

Furthermore, fixed drug eruption, allergic contact dermatitis, genital herpes, pemphigus vulgaris, flexural psoriasis, and Reiter’s disease should be differentiated from ZB. Accentuation of spongiosis occurs in the lower half of the spinous zone. Topical tacrolimus, genital lichen sclerosus, and risk of balanlpostitis cell carcinoma. Plasma cell balanitis of Zoon: The treatment of Zoon’s balanitis with the carbon dioxide laser.

Diagnosis and management of premalignant penile lesions. Recurrent bouts of balanitis may cause scarring of the preputial orifice ; the reduced elasticity candodiasica lead to pathologic phimosis.

Zoon balanitis: A comprehensive review

CS1 Spanish-language sources es Infobox medical condition new Articles containing Greek-language text Articles with references in external links Commons category link is on Wikidata. YAG laser can be finely adapted to this clinical scenario. Hematospermia Retrograde ejaculation Postorgasmic illness syndrome. In addition to this, it is rather very important to differentiate this lesion from its clinical equivocal lesions such as erythroplasia of Queyrat, infective and other inflammatory penile dermatoses, which has been discussed in this review.


Dermatitis Folliculitis Cellulitis Hidradenitis. J Am Acad Dermatol. J Dermatol Surg Oncol.

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No evidence of human papillomavirus infection in balanitis circumscripta plasmacellularis Zoon. Shiny, erythematous patches on the glans, prepuce, or both.

Differentiation between balanitis and carcinoma in situ using reflectance confocal microscopy. These are more common in cases with a dense infiltrate.

An earlier study by Mallon et al. Conflicts of interest There are no conflicts of interest. Inflammation has many possible causes, including irritation by environmental substances, physical trauma, and infection such as bacterial, viral, or fungal. Balanitis is uncommon in circumcised men and in many cases preputial dysfunction is a causal or contributing factor.

For the condition in bullscaused by a virus see Bovine herpesvirus 1. It has been postulated that tacrolimus may affect the plasma cell response via its action on helper T-cells or a possible underlying T-cell dysfunction. Torchia D, Cappugi P.