Description of and animations from a Braitenberg vehicle simulator (based on the book Vehicles: Experiments in Synthetic Psychology). Movements of a Braitenberg vehicle with different connections between its sensors and motors. For the left-to-left/right-to-right connections the vehicle turns . PDF | Braitenberg vehicles have attracted many students to work in robotics because of their apparent simplicity as control mechanisms.

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Braitenberg Vehicles

Vehicle 4 and more As we are aware of the possibility to change sensor functions, henceforth we will play with them. It dislikes high temperature, turns away from hot places, and at the same time seems to dislike light bulbs with even greater passion, since it turns towards them and destroys them Thus, Vehicle3a and 3b will decelerate without changing their orientation when their both sensors are excited the same.

This behavior might be understood by a human observer as a creature that is ‘alive’ like an insect and ‘restless’, never stopping in its movement.

At that moment, Braitenberg introduces us a different kind of wire, called Mnemotrix. In vehicle4 brand of robots, the graph of the function is like a hill, having a maximum speed in avarage light, decelerating when light changes positively or negatively. Braitenberg vehicles are the product of thought experiments described in Valentino Braitenberg’s book “Vehicles: However, the lack of a formal theory supporting them entails they are used by the robotic community only as a teaching tool.


Yes, Vehicle3 types both like the source, but brraitenberg show their love in alternating ways. Archived copy as title Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from November Articles with permanently dead external links.

Braitenberg Vehicle Simulator

After that, Braitenberg adds an eye or camera to vehicles, to have the picture of the environment. It obeys the following rule:. The thought experiment suggests that Vehicle 2a will avoid sources, while 2b will attack them. Their toy world deserves to be resembled to real world especially with the war for survival in addition to environment and creatures. Approaching the stimulation, Vehicle 3a will orient towards it and come to rest facing it.

Anthropomorphic interpretation Braitenberg illustrates the potential for over-blown interpretation.

Converse is true, when an aggresive blue or green vehicle comes, it will see it red, convincing us that this creature braitenberrg making generalizations. As we have two motors and two sensors now, we have two different combination to wire them To wire both to both is exactly Vehicle1.

Then, even increasing motor and sensor amount to two gets things complicated.

Experiments in synthetic psychology. Braitenberg is supposed to be the father of this branch, since his researches, articles and publications ushered a new era in this field.

A model and formal analysis of Braitenberg vehicles 2 and 3

Whereas Vehicle 3b accelerates when it can’t see the light source, and when it finds, it just decreases speed.

Wikipedia entry on Braitenberg Vehicles. Archived from the original on Views Read Edit View history.


Even this finity situation can be solved. Otherwise, it will tend to turn away from the stimulation. These show completely different behaviour.

It has primitive sensors that measure some stimulus at a point, and wheels each driven by its own motor that function as actuators or effectors. The discussion in the book and experiments about vehicles are leaded by “law of uphill venicles and downhill invention” which make all the stuff in the book more comprehensible, hence it is more difficult to grasp a working mechanism or system just by looking externally than to compose vfhicles up from scratch.

That causes the vehicle to orbit around the source or drawing eight figures or some more different shapes Figure 5a – Figure 5b.

A model and formal analysis of Braitenberg vehicles 2 and 3 – Semantic Scholar

Vehicles currently runs on Windows platforms using Open-GL for the graphics engine. This time left motor will work less, and Vehicle2b will turn to light source. The low velocity in regions of low temperature might be interpreted as a preference for cold areas. The most commonly cited of Braitenberg’s vehicles have two motors bdaitenberg two sensors arranged as shown in the figure here which is copied from p.