Editors’ Note: In her well-known book on The Shadow Negotiation, Kolb focused .. 4 See Deborah M. Kolb & Judith Williams, Breakthrough Bargaining, in a dynamic we have come to call the “shadow negotiation” – the complex and “Breakthrough Bargaining,” by Deborah M. Kolb and Judith Williams, which. Breakthrough Bargaining. RM By Deborah M. Kolb and Judith Williams. Power moves; Process Breakthrough Bargaining. Negotiation.

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By the same token, a woman might take up the role of helper or concentrate on the relationship, again because she perceives that the context calls breakhrough her to behave in that way.

Endnotes [1] Deborah M.

Documentation and Publications | CEFNE, Center for Study and Training in Business Negotiation

First, the findings boil down to two points— either women are the same as men or they are different from them i. A gender lens, in contrast, presents an alternative view of interdependence and why it is important in negotiation. Work on stereotyped threat in which negotiators are primed with particular gender stereotypes indicates how these expectations influence outcomes. From this notion in extant theories, breakghrough must be forced to recognize their joint dependence on each other by acknowledging that their fates are intertwined.

However, these behaviors when enacted by a woman are likely to be seen differently than they are when men employ them.

Gender in Negotiation

Assertiveness, self-orientation, and an instrumental focus may backfire against women. Using this lens, we focus on what is silenced or ignored in the field.

Furthermore, a gender lens offers a broad definition of negotiation—one that holds possibilities for transformative outcomes unimagined before the bargaining began. From bargainiing perspective, a focus on relationships, the skills of empathy, and the ability to manage conflict and competition simultaneously are thought although not explicitly tested to be advantageous in negotiations.


Deborah Kolb and Judith Williams, whose book The Shadow Negotiation was the starting point for this article, say there are three strategies businesspeople can use to guide these hidden interactions.

After many years of indifference, the study of gender is now an important area of scholarship in negotiation. Retweet on Twitter Riverdale Mediation Retweeted.

Whereas the initiating party may view this action as a strategic move, made without malice, the target may experience it as an attack that undermines the legitimate claims she is making about herself and her proposals.

Our on-site mediators have breakthrougy minutes and good tools to assess risk—.

In a paradoxical way, breajthrough common approach to thinking about interdependence hinges on individualistic notions of dependence and independence. Schneider and Christopher Honeyman. In this approach, interdependence is negotiated rather than surfacing as a residual or byproduct of an agreement.

A double bind test for a woman leader is the question can she be a leader and a woman too? Interpretive Perspectives on Gender Interpretive perspectives shift the focus away from essentialist characteristics of men and women to the negotiation interaction itself. In terms of gender, this means that one party to a negotiation can delegitimize the other party through making gender or other aspects of status and identity salient to the process.

Breakthrough bargaining.

Process moves affect how bargsining issues are received by both sides in the process, even though they do not address substantive issues. A third way that a gender lens illuminates negotiation dynamics centers on bargaining as a relational system.

A feminist view of relationships calls for reframing such traditional concepts as interdependence and bargaining power. To focus on gender difference—whether to bemoan it or celebrate it—treats gender as an essential individual and stable characteristic of men and women.

Initially cast as individual differences, the field has moved to an interpretive and kolh conception of gender.


The power and positioning of a negotiator are not finally established at the outset of the bargaining; but can be continually contested. Transformation also aims for negotiated settlements, but for ones that attend to relational and identity concerns in addition to substantive matters.

One way gender gets mobilized in negotiations concerns identity and how salient gender is to an individual negotiator. The effort to identify situational triggers that make gender more or less likely to be salient in a negotiation is another area of recent scholarship.

Situational Effects and Gendered Constructions The effort to identify situational triggers that make gender more or less likely to be salient in a negotiation is another area of recent scholarship. This research, conducted by Kathleen McGinn, Hannah Riley Bowles, Linda Babcock and Michele Gelfand, indicates that gender differences are more likely to be observed in distributive as opposed to integrative bargaining, when negotiators represent themselves rather than function as agents, and when situations are ambiguous as opposed to being structured.

Kolb, Staying in the Game or Changing It: Our on-site mediators have 20 minutes and good tools to assess risk— 3. First, the approach treats men and women as internally homogenous categories, yet we know there is considerable bsrgaining within the sexes. Aspiring leaders are expected to willingly take on developmental opportunities—to refuse may preclude another offer.

Meta-analyses of these studies have shown only small statistically significant differences bargainlng on just two dimensions: If she acts decisively and pushes for what she needs—behaviors we might expect from leaders—she may be seen as too pushy.