This article throws light upon the five stages in downstream processing. The five stages are: (1) Solid-Liquid Separation (2) Release of Intracellular Products (3). Downstream Processing means recovery of desired products from its crude extract. As we all know that downstream processing is a procedure of separation as well as recovery of yielded products that are manufactured by.

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It is composed of a rotating horizontal bowl tapered at one end.

Consequently steps in this stage are expensive to carry out and require sensitive and sophisticated equipment. In other words, the pH determines the effective charge on both the target molecule and the ion-exchanger. Downstream processing and analytical bioseparation both refer to the separation or purification of biological products, but at different scales of operation and for different purposes.

Find a Great Teacher Tell us your learning needs in detail and get immediate response from qualified tutors. The products of fermentation are very effectively purified by chromatography.

Before proceeding towards its applications, one must know how this downstream processing is carried out and what steps of it are. Some authors use the term harvesting of microbial cells for the separation of cells from the culture medium.

Downstream processing

The isolation and purification of a biotechnological product to a form suitable for its intended use, is termed DSP. This is a technique in which volatile products can be separated by a process of permeation through a membrane coupled with evaporation. This is an advanced technique working on the principle of membrane filtration coupled with solvent extraction. Retrieved from ” https: Tubular bowl centrifuge can be operated at a high centrifugal speed, and can be run in both batch or continuous mode.


The immobilized ligand on a solid matrix can be effectively used to fish out complementary structures.

Stages in Downstream Processing: 5 Stages

To this shaft are fitted radial agitators. Bacteria from culture medium can be removed by absolute filters. Downstream processing implies manufacture of a purified product fit for a specific use, generally in marketable quantities, while analytical bioseparation refers to purification for the sole purpose of measuring a component or components of a mixture, and may deal with procsss sizes as small as a single cell. The organic solvent toluene is frequently used.

Typical operations to achieve this are filtrationcentrifugationsedimentationprecipitation, flocculationelectro-precipitation downsteaming, and gravity settling. Formulation, Fill And Finish The operation that occur subsequent to protein purification, such as freeing of the purified protein bulk, thawing procss the bulk, formulation excipient additionsterile filtration, filling, freeze dying and inspection are termed as Formulation and fill-finish operations.

Organic solvents cannot be used for protein extraction, as they lose their biological activities. If you continue to use this site downdtreaming will assume that you are happy with it. The department has experience and a large toolbox for characterization of polysaccharides, with particular experience in alginate and alginate oligomers.

Downstream processing – Wikipedia

Ion-exchange chromatography is useful for the purification of antibiotics, besides the purification of proteins. Proteins are also purified for characterization, for instance enzymes with new, or modified, activities developed by enzyme evolution and engineering. In downstfeaming years, cellulose-based adsorbents are employed for protein concentration. Freeze-drying or lyophilization is the most preferred method for drying and formulation of a wide-range of products—pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, diagnostics, bacteria, viruses.

The microorganisms or other cells can be disintegrated or disrupted by physical, chemical or enzymatic methods. This is followed by another round of tangential flow filtration using a finer microporous membrane to remove the subcellular debris.


Most important principle of downstream processing is that one size definitely does not fit all no universally applicable arrangement of operational units which define ideal downstream processing. Osmotic shock is used for the release of hydrolytic enzymes and binding proteins from Gram-negative bacteria.

Capturing is usually achieved by first chromatography step which is designed as rough cut to eliminate as many impurities as possible.

The compound gets itself distributed between two liquid phases based on the physical properties. In order to increase the efficiency of cell disintegration in a cost-effective manner, a combination of physical, chemical and enzymatic methods is employed.

Ion-exchangers are of two types cation- exchangers which have negatively charged groups like carboxymethyl and sulfonate, and anion- exchangers with positively charged groups like diethylaminoethyl DEAE. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. In the actual profess, the liquid containing the product is frozen and then dried in a freeze-dryer under vacuum.

Stages in Downstream Processing: 5 Stages

These compounds are inflammable; hence require specialised equipment for fire safety. The vacuum can now be released and the product containing vials can be sealed e. This is basically a modification of tubular bowl type of centrifuge. Capture or polish model approach is currently used where the capturing step achieves most of the purification in one module and significantly reduces the feed volume by simultaneously concentrating the product in the flow-through.

The selection of a particular method depends on the nature of the cells, since there is a wide variation in the property of cell disruption or breakage.

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