Download as PDF or read online from Scribd. Flag for inappropriate content. Save. Garcés, Joan. Soberanos e intervenidos [1](1) (2). For Later. save. Related. Soberanos e intervenidos: Estrategias globales, americanos y españoles ( Sociología y política) by Joan E Garcés at – ISBN Joan Garcés #SciencesPo (Paris)-Right Livelihood Award Laureate-Autor de Soberanos e intervenidos.

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Many blamed foreign intervention for the prolongation of the Spanish Civil War Yet accounting for their failure involves looking into the character of both Franco and Hitler in great depth, as well as into the many circumstantial elements connected to their mutual exchanges. Their prior experience was the very foundation on which the operation was conceived, and quickly became just as crucial to its smooth execution. The condition was as follows: Pinochet was arrested and the United Kingdom Courts granted his extradition.

A telegram of the 26 Junecontaining the breakdown of sums and instructions on the payments, indicates Queipo had recently returned to Seville. Links Better World Links.

The role these generals would come to play in the operation is seen later.

It would therefore be vital that neutrality be presented as a worthy cause, or at least one that they could outwardly defend without stultifying themselves. The operation would be deemed a success of high strategic value. It was necessary that the origin of Bribes be concealed in its entirety. The authors of Bribes would have to concentrate on creating sufficiently strong an opposition to restrain him. The generals held considerable leverage over Franco, but the relationship worked both ways.

Under those circumstances, the Government could not hope for a majority acceptance of NATO but instead to obtain a victory in the referendum as the way to ensure the permanence of Spain in the Atlantic Alliance. Specifically, the question of who would manage the “No” to NATO would not have such a significant impact in these regions. British instincts, too, pointed to the notion that the Spanish had little sense of secrecy It was perhaps a happy accident that the secret services did not make the connection between his links to the monarchist conspiracy and his dealings with the British.


March had obtained the promise of the generals to rally for neutrality against the Falange. Juan March, a garecs Majorcan banker and conspirator, was also to play a crucial role in the unfolding. This is one of many instances in which he demonstrated an ability to control both political and military factions under his authority: He spent a considerable amount of energy and money in taking forward the Pinochet case first and the Franco case afterwards, struggling against unaccountability and in crimes against humanity and showing that it is possible to end the impunity of sobernaos.

The University soebranos Wisconsin Press, Please try again later. A belated declassification not yet digitalised by The National Archives in Kew has nevertheless provided new and crucial information on a main covert operation undertaken: The threat of Spanish entry would effectively have subsided.

Barely consulting with his Ministers on policy at all 43let alone foreign policy, it was the generals he relied on when it came to deciding on matters of governance, and he submitted the other departments to the directives established with, and by, the army The first would relate garcws point 4 of section I.

Congressional Quarterly Press,pp. When Pinochet visited London in OctoberGarces demanded his arrest and extradition to Spain to face trial.

España reunirá a Allende y Pinochet sobre las tablas

But Franco chose to bypass this particular Gordian knot. Where Franco had been misread to support neutrality, their understanding of the situation in Spain allowed Bribes to become a viable and effective strategy, and when doubts as to the character of March were seen as an obstacle, they were able to guarantee that he was useful to the British cause. The University of Wisconsin Press,p. Although this volte-face from alleged peace activist to itnervenidos militarist garcss been debated many times interrvenidos, I think it is necessary to put it into historical context.


Are you sure you want to continue? Beside a cluster of mostly limited operations carried out in Spain by the War Office, the Secret Intelligence Service and the Special Operations Executive 7one large-scale bribery scheme has drawn the attention of academics.

He was impervious to the onslaught of economic warfare, and to the carrot-and-stick tactics of the Allies. We tried to charge your subscription, but the payment failed.

Joan E. Garcés

Something went wrong and the book couldn’t be added to the bookshelf. Ontervenidos also points out however that in WWI, subventions to schemes operating against the Ottoman Empire had begun at 10, pounds and had ended up amounting to almost 11 million pounds sterling. Franco could not be obliged to remain neutral indefinitely— but he could be forced to delay his entry in the war until he enjoyed a more stable situation internally.

Buying time had always been the intent of the British, for it was understood that if Hitler could stall the advance of the Allies much longer, Franco would eventually join him.

But to Franco and his dreams of Spanish greatness, the war was also the solution to ease the tensions under a unified banner Revista de estudios literariosUniversidad Complutense de Madrid, It was to ensure neutrality was maintained, if not by Franco, through the instatement of the opposition.

Apprehensive of any intrigues that might compromise intervebidos position, Franco relied heavily on the Spanish secret services.

Soberanos E Intervenidos : Joan E Garces :

Spain during World War II. Naval and aerial operations in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. Use of the national territory as a retreat or multifunctional platform traffic, support and logistics.