Ibn Rushd Fi Kitab Fasl Al-Maqal Wa-Taqrir Ma Bayna Al-Shari Ah Wa-Al-Hikmah Min Al-Ittisal, Ahamm Al-Mawdu at Fi Al-Falsafah Wa-Al-Fiqh Wa-Al-Manhaj. the content of Fasl al-Maqal, and then examine what Ibn Rushd in fact does in Kitab Fasl al-Maqal wa Taqrlr ma bayn al-Shart’ah wa al-Hikmah min at-Ittisal. Kitab fasl al-maqal, with its appendix (Damima) and translation is based on the Arabic text in Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Kitab fasl al-maqal, ed.

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Indeed we find most lawyers in this state, although their art by its essence calls for nothing but practical virtue. But if they are set down in other than demonstrative books and one deals with kitzb by poetical, rhetorical or dialectical methods, as Abu Hamid does, then he commits an offence against the Law and against philosophy, even though the fellow intended nothing but good. If unanimous agreement is established by a method fas, is certain, such [a result] is not sound; but if [the existence of] agreement on those things is a matter of opinion, then kitsb may be sound.

The Law, then, has urged us to have demonstrative knowledge of God the Exalted and all the beings of His creation. Indeed God has already removed iktab of these ills, ignorant ideas and misleading practices, by means of this triumphant rule.

The reason why we have received in Scripture texts whose apparent meanings contradict each other is in order to draw the attention of those who are well grounded in science to the interpretation which reconciles them.

He is the Penetrating, the Omniscient! Displaying Editions 21 – 30 out of They are the overwhelming mass, for no man of sound intellect is exempted from this kind of assent.

A nother class is the people of al-,aqal interpretation: These [common] methods in religion are al-maql four classes: Peace on you, with the mercy and blessings of God. And if he who would judge what is allowed and forbidden is required to combine in himself the qualifications for exercise of personal judgment, namely knowledge of kitba principles [of law] and knowledge of how to draw inferences from those principles by reasoning, ao-maqal much more properly is he who would make litab about beings required to be qualified, i.

In sum, it can hardly iitab conceived that the knowledge of a thing before it exists can be identical with the knowledge of it after it exists. That unanimity on theoretical matters is never determined with certainty, as it can be on practical matters, may be shown to you by the fact that it is not possible for unanimity to be determined on any question at any period unless that period is strictly limited by us, and all the scholars existing in that period are known to us i.

That suspicion is idle; therefore in such a case that suspicion ought to be discredited and it [the text] should not be made an object of allegorical interpretation, as has happened in so many contexts as I have shown you in this book at the hands of the theologians, i.


Diacritical marks are omitted where an Arabic name is incorporated in an English form, e. A nother class is the people of dialectical interpretation: To how many lawyers has law been a cause of al-maqsl of piety and immersion in this kita If, when beings come to exist after not having existed, there occurred an addition in the eternal Knowledge such as occurs in originated knowledge, it would follow that the eternal Knowledge would be an effect of beings, not their cause.

He asserted that knowledge and the object known are related; and as casl of two related things may change without the other changing in itself, this is just what seems to happen to things in the Knowledge of God the Glorious: Bodies like these cannot possibly all exist actually [at the same time]because their material is one: You ought to know that the purpose of Scripture is simply to teach true science and right practice.

So whoever wishes to remove this heresy from religion should direct his attention to the precious Book, and glean ktab it the indications present [in it] concerning everything in turn that it obliges us to believe, arid exercise his judgment in looking at its apparent meaning as well as he is able, without interpreting any of it allegorically, except where the allegorical meaning is apparent in itself, i.

The purpose of Scripture is to teach true science and right practice; and teaching is of two classes, [of] concepts and [of] judgments, as the logicians have shown. One class is those who are not people of interpretation at all: But it is now clear from what we have said that this is not the case. Now the methods available to men of [arriving at] judgments are three: For those religious sayings in the precious Book which are expressed to everyone have three properties that indicate their miraculous character: Remember me on this computer.

For death from water by choking is al-maqao accidental matter, but death by thirst is essential and necessary.

Thus people in relation to Scripture fall into three classes: By doing this Ghazali caused confusion among the people. A nd again it is clear that in the study of beings this aim can be fulfilled by us perfectly only through successive examinations of xl-maqal by one man after another, 41 the later ones seeking the help of the earlier in that task, on the model of what has happened in the mathematical sciences.

Through knowledge of Scripture and practice according to Scripture the Legislator aims solely at this health; and it is from this health that happiness in the future life follows, just as misery in the future life follows from its opposite. But in truth it is they who are the unbelievers and in error!

From this it is evident that the study of the books of the ancients is obligatory by Law, since their aim and purpose in their books is just the purpose to which the Law has urged us, and that whoever forbids the study of them to anyone who is fit to study them, i. Then how can he do it with the art of arts, philosophy?


Ibn Rushd: Fasl al-maqal (Arabic Books: alkutub – مكتبة الكتب العربية)

But both alternatives are impossible for God the Glorious. Another group holds that there is a difference in the kind of existence.

Georges Anawati, Professor N. Al-maqao features of WorldCat will not be available. Select All Clear All Save to: For the natures of men are on different levels with respect to [their paths to] assent. The [full] solution of this difficulty would call for a lengthy discourse; but here we shall only go into the decisive point of the solution.

But every opinion is fadl except total rejection of another life. He is unable to make them all doctors, because a doctor is one who knows by demonstrative methods the things which preserve fas and cure disease.

Death is a cessation; it must therefore be of the organ, as is the case in sleep. They even hold that God sends premonitions in dreams of particular events. Therefore such [a text] ought not to be interpreted allegorically by any but the elite and the scholars; and those who notice that it is symbolic, without being of the class of people who can understand what it symbolizes, should either be told that it is of the ambiguous kind whose meaning is known by the well grounded scholars, or the symbolization in it should be translated for them into something [even] easier than what they know, the fact that it is symbolic.

In memory of my father

In general, everything in these [texts] which admits of allegorical interpretation can only be understood by al-maqa. Thus since this divine religion of ours has summoned people by these three methods, assent to it has extended to everyone, except him who stubbornly denies it with his tongue or him for whom no method of summons to God the Exalted has been appointed in religion owing to his own neglect of such matters.

Cynthia Goldstein for typing the greater portion fazl my manuscript, and my wife for her encouraging interest which has sustained my effort. It seems that those who disagree on the interpretation of these difficult questions earn merit if they are in the right and will be excused [by God] fsl they are in error. Scriptural texts of this class have no allegorical interpretations, and anyone who denies them or interprets them allegorically is an unbeliever.

But when those who al-maqwl after them used allegorical interpretation, their fear of God grew less, their dissensions increased, their love for one another was removed, and they became divided into sects.